13 Types of Text for Learning English in High Schools

English Admin – The ultimate guide on learning English text types. If you are in high schools, you will learn 13 types of English text. This will be called genres and commonly presented in definition, generic structure and language feature. This is the core strategy of learning English through text-based approach.

The text classification may differ from one theory to another. Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used, English texts are divided into 13 types. They are narrative, recount, descriptive, report, explanation, analytical exposition, hortatory exposition, procedure, discussion, review, anecdote, spoof, and news item. See the illustrative picture below

13 kind of text in English
Kinds of text which students of high schools should study when learning English

These variations are known as GENRES, types of text, or kinds of text but NOT text forms. Now we will see the summary of all kids of text.

Text Types 1: NARRATIVE
Purpose:
To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Complication
3. Resolution
4. Reorientation (optional)
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Chronologically arranged

Narrative text can be simple a story. For more explanation you can read:

Text Types 2: RECOUNT
Purpose:
To retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Reorientation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adjectives

Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE; whether Simple Past Tense, Simple Past Continuous Tense, or Past Perfect Tense. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Commonly narrative text is found in story book; myth, fable, folklore, etc while recount text is found in biography.

The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict, social conflict or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. In the contrary, we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure

Recount text is used in various form. For more explanation, you can read:

Text Types 3: DESCRIPTIVE
Purpose:
To describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Identification
2. Description
Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Using special technical terms

For more explanation on descriptive text, you can read:

Text Types 4: REPORT
Purpose:
To presents information about something, as it is.
Generic Structure:
1. General classification
2. Description
Dominant Language Feature:
1. Introducing group or general aspect
2. Using conditional logical connection
3. Using Simple Present Tense

For more explanation on report text, you can read:

Text Types 5: EXPLANATION
Purpose:
To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.
Generic Structure:
1. General statement
2. Explanation
3. Closing
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verbs
3. Using passive voice
4. Using noun phrase
5. Using adverbial phrase
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect

For more study on explanation text, you can read:

Text Types 6: ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION
Purpose:
To reveal the readers that something is the important case
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Reiteration/Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using modals
2. Using action verbs
3. Using thinking verbs
4. Using adverbs
5. Using adjective
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using connectives/transition

You can read more about explanation text on the following articles:

Text Types 7: HORTATORY EXPOSITION
Purpose:
To persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done
Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Recommendation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using modals
3. Using action verbs
4. Using thinking verbs
5. Using adverbs
6. Using adjective
7. Using technical terms
8. Using general and abstract noun
9. Using connectives/transition

Articles about hortatory exposition can be found more on:

Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. In simple word. Analytical is the answer of “How is/will” while hortatory is the answer of “How should”. Analytical exposition will be best to describe “How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question” How should student do for his exam?” will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince that the thing should be done

Text Types 8: PROCEDURE
Purpose:
To help readers how to do or make something completely
Generic Structure:
1. Goal/Aim
2. Materials/Equipments
3. Steps/Methods
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using Imperatives sentence
3. Using adverb
4. Using technical terms

If you like to read more about procedure text, you can read the following articles:

Text tyeps 9: DISCUSSION
Purpose:
To present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’)
Generic Structure:
1. Issue
2. Arguments for and against
3. Conclusion
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Use of relating verb/to be
3. Using thinking verb
4. Using general and abstract noun
5. Using conjunction/transition
6. Using modality
7. Using adverb of manner

Explanations more on discussion text can be read on:

Text Types 10: REVIEW
Purpose:
To critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Evaluation
3. Interpretative Recount
4. Evaluation
5. Evaluative Summation
Dominant Language Features:
1. Focus on specific participants
2. Using adjectives
3. Using long and complex clauses
4. Using metaphor

Review text can be found more on:

Text Types 11: ANECDOTE
Purpose:
To share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident
Generic Structure:
1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Reaction
5. Coda.
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using exclamations, rhetorical question or intensifiers
2. Using material process
3. Using temporal conjunctions

Finding more on anecdote text, you can read:

Text Types 12: SPOOF
Purpose:
To tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers
Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Event(s)
3. Twist
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Chronologically arranged

Read more about spoof text on the following articles:

Text Tyeps 13: NEWS ITEM
Purpose:
To inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important
Dominant Generic Structure:
1. Newsworthy event
2. Background events
3. Sources
Dominant Language Features:
1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Using action verbs
3. Using saying verbs
4. Using adverbs : time, place and manner
If need more explanation on news item text, you can read:

This is the summary of all English text types learned in high schools. Remember that it is impossible to build a long text in English only through one single types. In functional writing, a text will be structured with a combination of two or more genres to achieve the writer’s goal.

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